|Title :Enabling Design for Reliability in Advanced Interconnects for 3D IC and Next Generation Solar PV (Photovoltaics) Systems|
|Invited Paper: Dr. Arief Suriadi Budiman
|Affiliation: Singapore University of Technology and Design|
The importance of mechanics and reliability in the design of advanced engineering systems and devices goes beyond their functionality. When materials under operational conditions fail, which occur for any advanced systems (electronics, photonics, photovoltaics, mechanical or even biological), failures are almost always controlled by the mechanics of the materials – more and more true in advanced or nanoscale materials. Device/system makers have more and more thus realized that until they ship robust and reliable nanoscale systems/devices, they will not realize the true commercial values of their products. Thus the term was coined in the design community – Design for Reliability. To enable design for reliability for advanced systems/devices like 3D IC systems and next generation photovoltaics (PV) modules, it is important that we not only become great nanoresearchers and scientists, but also great nanodesigners – able to offer complete and elegant engineering solutions from ideas to beautifully working, robust and reliable nanodevices. One key to enable the successful implementation of advanced interconnects in 3D IC using the Through-Silicon Via (TSV) as well as in next generation PV systems is the control of the mechanical stresses. They could lead directly to integration issues as well as reliability concerns during the system’s lifetime. More importantly, they could also impact the device/system’s electrical performance through strain-induced electron mobility change in the silicon (in the case of TSV) and the photovoltaics performance through cell cracks in the silicon solar cells (in the case of solar PV). In an effort to shed light on these topics, stress characterization and mapping of the samples using ex situ and in situ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction technique (in situ – ie. during operational and/or accelerated loading conditions of the device) are proposed. The synchrotron-sourced X-ray microdiffraction technique has been recognized to allow some important advantages compared to other techniques, namely stress measurement of individual Cu TSV as well as the silicon substrate surrounding it simultaneously at the submicron resolution, stress measurement in situ during annealing and while Cu TSV is still buried under the silicon substrate (mimicking the conditions of real device). In the case of silicon solar PV, this technique has been also recently recognized to allow important measurement to be done directly on the silicon solar cells while they are already encapsulated in the laminate or module packages. Using this approach, we aim to gain fundamental understanding of the role of stresses and mechanics, and how they evolve through processes and integration as well as during operation/service of the device leading to the eventual catastrophic events of failure. This elementary understanding of the failure mechanisms would allow the robust construction of mechanistic-based accelerated models. Some examples involving other advanced interconnects in Back-End-Of-the-Line (BEOL) integration schemes as well as in next generation thin silicon solar PV technology will also be discussed highlighting how we could enable design for reliability using the synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction technique in advanced microelectronics and next generation thin solar PV systems.
Arief Suriadi Budiman received his B.S. in mechanical engineering from Institute of Technology, Bandung (ITB), Indonesia, his M.EngSc in materials engineering from Monash Univ., Australia and his Ph.D. in Materials Science and Engineering from Stanford University, CA in 2008. During his doctoral candidacy at Stanford’s Department of Materials Science & Engineering under the supervision of Professor William D. Nix (MRS Von Hippel Award 2007), Dr. Budiman received several research awards (MRS Graduate Silver Award 2006, MRS Best Paper 2006) and contributed to several high-impact journal publications (Acta Materialia, Applied Physics Letters, Journal of Electronic Materials). He gave two symposium invited talks as well in the MRS spring and fall meetings in 2006. More recently Dr. Budiman has been awarded the prestigious Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Director’s Research Fellowship to conduct top strategic research for the energy and national security missions of the Los Alamos National Laboratory’s. At the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) at Los Alamos, Dr. Budiman’s research program involves nanomaterials for extreme environments with potential applications in advanced energy systems including for next generation nuclear power reactors. Currently, at Singapore University of Technology & Design (SUTD), Prof. Budiman is leading a dynamic, young group researching nanomaterials and nanomechanics and their implications for extending the extreme limits of materials as well as their applications in the next generation energy technologies (solar PV, extreme environments, energy storage, etc.). His work has also recently received the famed Berkeley Lab Scientific Highlights twice in May 2010 and June 2013 (the latter was for his novel, innovative characterization technique that enables thin silicon solar PV technology). His deep expertise in the synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction technique was also recently utilized to enable the first ever in situ measurements of mechanical stresses in the 3-D through-silicon via (TSV) Cu interconnect schemes in the world – the findings were reported in a publication in Microelectronics Reliability (2012) and now one of the most highly cited references in the field of TSV/3D Interconnect stress measurements. He has been invited to give invited lectures/seminars on 3D/TSV Interconnect in various international conferences (including IEEE IITC 2012, AVS Thin Films Users Group 2012, TMS Symposium for Emerging Interconnects and Packaging Technologies 2011 and SEMATECH Workshop on 3D Interconnect Metrology at SEMICON 2011). Dr. Budiman has authored/co-authored several high-impact journal publications (Acta Materialia, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, Materials Science Engineering A), and contributed a book chapter on “Electromigration in Thin Films and Electronic Devices: Materials and Reliability,” Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, 2011. He has also recently published a book “Probing Crystal Plasticity at the Nanoscales – Synchrotron X-ray Microdiffraction” (Springer 2015). He has two U. S. Patents and one pending.